The two main functions of exhaust system is to extract the clean emissions produced by the engine and to reduce the noise level from the engine. It has one or two channels depending on the engine type. The operating mode of both channels is the same.
It is made up of 4 main parts which include; catalytic converter, muffler, resonator and tail pipe.
Catalytic Converter: Converts harmful emissions from the engine into water vapor and carbon dioxide. It contains substances such as platinum, palladium, rhodium, or a chemical that causes other chemicals to react with each other without changing it. These substances last for about 160,000 kilometers. They can fail prematurely due to oil leaks, non-combustible fuel or external damages. The stench of rotten egg is detected when the catalytic chamber begins to fail and the ‘light engine test’ will be turned on. Changing the catalytic converter can be very expensive because of it is made of precious metals such as cerium, platinum, rhodium, or manganese.
Muffler: It is made up of the resonance chamber and the perforated pipes. It reduces engine noise and improves the flow rate which translates into better performance of the engine. The muffler acts as a well-organized musical instrument. As it creates different sound waves, it can be adjusted to “produce a certain sound, anything from whispering to thunder.
Resonator: Similar to a muffler. It can be set before or after the muffler. Its main function is to organize and ‘tune vibrations’. In addition, it plays a major role in improving emissions which in turn leads to better fuel efficiency.
Pipe Tail: This is the last part of the exhaust system. It directs out exhaust gases. In many modern cars, it also serves as a decorative element. It is usually dipped in chrome.